The Science Is In: Political Correctness Doesn’t Work!

Conservatives have known this intuitively for years: Political correctness doesn’t work! As described in great detail in my post Several Reasons Why We “Resist” Political Correctness, some major reasons for backlash against it has to do with the Left’s double standards and hypocrisy in applying it, the denial of safety issues, attacks on our identity and culture, and simply the fact that many people are fed up with the constant edicts and demands that never seem to stop! Now, scientific studies have given us yet another reason why we don’t respond to PC demands: They don’t appeal to our internal motivations to change.

Many on the Left emphasize actions they feel ought to be taken to create a less prejudiced society. Don’t say these words. Don’t say this as a compliment. Don’t ask that question. Don’t wear that outfit. Don’t listen to that music, watch that show, read that book. Shun anyone who thinks differently and declare them persona non grata. Put this sign on your yard. Vote for these candidates. Use this hashtag. Boycott this store, or that brand. Say these catchy slogans and buzzwords. Hold these ideologies and don’t deviate from their worldview. Think conservatives are backwards. You see this repeated in workplaces and schools through every class “dialogue” (which is really a Leftist monologue) sensitivity training, diversity orientation, safe space training, racism seminars promoting white guilt, among others.

Yet, does this even work? It certainly doesn’t for us conservatives! The Left declares you a racist, sexist, homophobe, etc. if you aren’t fully into their little teaching sessions as many have experienced. We’re not any of those things they accuse us of, yet we don’t embrace their narrow view of how “good” people should act. Sadly, to protect our careers, reputations and social connections, sometimes, we play along and parrot their edicts back to them while holding true to our own views privately. In essence, the Left’s indoctrination sessions in the classroom or the workplace merely foster social pressure to conform rather than internalized beliefs that they are correct, and morally superior.

This is where the science comes in. We all have intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for why we believe in and conform to certain things. Intrinsic motivators are our deeply held values. If we do something for intrinsic reasons, we want to do it. If we do something for an extrinsic reason, it is often because we want to conform out of social pressures or fear of some imposed consequence, or conversely, have an external reward to gain from it. Research shows what conservatives knew already: Appeals to extrinsic motivators to be more “woke” or PC such as intense social pressure and cancel culture does not work. Nor does giving out a laundry list of arbitrary rules make anyone more desiring to become less prejudiced.

In a paper published in 2011 called “Ironic Effects of Antiprejudice Messages: How Motivational Interventions Can Reduce (but Also Increase) Prejudice” by Lisa Legault, Jennifer Gutsell, and Michael Inzlicht, they studied the effects of more extrinsic, or “controlling” messages and more intrinsic, or “autonomy focused” messages on reducing prejudice. Controlling messages do just as expected, they are meant to control one’s actions. Autonomy focused messages also as expected, focus more on the person’s autonomy to make a choice not to be prejudiced as a personal moral value. The researchers hypothesized that autonomy focused messaging would have a greater effect at reducing prejudice than controlling messages.

To test this, Legault and her research partners designed two experiments. In the first experiment, participants read a brochure on the topic of prejudice. They assigned the participants to one of three conditions:

  1. Read an autonomy focused brochure.
  2. Read a controlling brochure.
  3. Read a neutral brochure to use as a control group.

Those assigned to read the autonomy-brochure read information emphasizing one’s choice to embrace values of non-prejudice. Those assigned to the controlling-brochure read the message that one needs to comply with social norms, (a.k.a political correctness) to fight prejudice. The control group only read about defining the concept of prejudice.

Afterward, the researchers used surveys to measure prejudice and screen for intrinsic or extrinsic motivations. Results showed those who read the autonomy-brochure had decreased prejudice, and those who read the controlling-brochure emphasizing social norms had increased prejudice. Even more shocking, those in the controlling-brochure condition had more prejudice than those in the control group!

Believe it or not, their second experiment had even more striking results! In the second experiment, they used surveys to measure participants’ agreement with statements about prejudice that were either more autonomy focused or controlling in nature. After, participants were asked to write a few sentences with prompts that emphasized an autonomy focused approach or a controlling approach depending on which condition they were assigned to. Results showed the same pattern as the first experiment, but even more dramatically, as there was a greater difference between the autonomy condition and the other two. Legault’s research clearly supports evidence that extrinsic motivators are not effective, and may actually decrease motivation to become less prejudice than having no motivation at all!

A second study published more recently in 2017 called “Training away bias: The differential effects of counter stereotype training and self-regulation on stereotype activation and application” by Mason D. Burns, Margo J. Monteith and Laura R.Parker reinforced Legault’s findings about intrinsic motivation being a stronger force for less prejudice. Burns and his team researched whether conscious means to retrain the mind to associate counter-stereotypical words with certain groups instead of associating them with negative words would reduce implicit bias. Counter stereotype training consists of learning to pair positive words such as “intelligent” or “competent”, with various races that are often negatively stereotyped with negative words such as “unintelligent” or “incompetent”. The goal is to eventually out compete the negative implicit associations by retraining one’s mind to associate new positive words with various racial groups. Burns hypothesized that counter stereotype training would reduce implicit bias more than having received no training.

The experiment was to have participants look at a computer screen with pictures of either white or black people and click on words that were counter stereotypical for them as fast as possible. Participants were assigned to three conditions:

  1. A group who read a list of counter stereotypes before doing the task.
  2. A group who was only warned to be aware of stereotypes but received no counter stereotype list.
  3. A control group who just did the online task with no further instructions.

Results showed that despite some positive effects of counter stereotype training, it was not effective overall contrary to Burns and colleagues’ initial hypothesis. Those who were given the warning not to think stereotypically but not trained had less biased responses than the counter stereotype condition. The researchers theorized this was because the warning was a prompt to activate participants’ intrinsic motivation not to be biased through increasing their awareness of how bias conflicts with their values. The implications of Burns’ research is that those mind-control training seminars at work or in the classroom the Left likes impose on us don’t work!

The findings of these two studies easily highlight yet another reason we resist political correctness and the Left’s agenda. In addition to being hypocritical, a threat to safety in some cases, an attack on our culture and values, and simply annoying, scientific evidence shows the Left has gone about it all wrong. If they truly wanted to make change, they would have more luck appealing to our values over dictating what we must do to appease the Left. Then again, what values do they really have? From what I’ve seen, it definitely is not about equality for all, just who they pick and choose.

This is just my own theory, but perhaps they don’t appeal to our values because we’d discover theirs and ours are not alike at all! The evidence the Left gives for their arbitrary pronouncements points to a different motive: Power and control.

So when do we decide it’s time to act on our internal values, and not their external pressures?

Editorial cartoons for Saturday, June 20 | HeraldNet.com

26 thoughts on “The Science Is In: Political Correctness Doesn’t Work!

  1. My message to the Progressives, the Socialists, and anyone else of the Despicable people who are disenchanted with this country. If you don’t like it here, GET THE HELL OUT!

    Liked by 1 person

  2. A Little Off Topic, but important just the same!
    It’s looking like “THE BIG GUY” in Hunter Biden’s emails who was to receive a 10% cut in a treasonous deals made with China is none other than Joe Biden. What a Shock!

    But don’t tell me or any others who are Conservatives’s like me, or any of the people that aren’t already Brain-Washed from watching CNN, because they won’t hear ANYTHING about that story over there in that Dark Winter Channel.
    In fact if you ask any Lefty about this, they’ll look at you as if you had Two Heads. They are never exposed to hearing/seeing the truth. They’ll tell you that they don’t pay any attention to what your “Cult Leader Trump” says.

    Those pathetic little brainwashed Commie’s, are obviously never heard anything about what’s going on with Dear Old Innocent Hunter, and Hunter’s Laptop Computer that was found and is in the hands of the FBI, and is filled with emails about Hunter’s, and Joe “The Big Guy” Biden’s Deep, Dark escapades in China, and Iran, and Russin putting Millions of Dollars from their Illegal deals, and the code words for each of them .
    Or the Child Porn pictures also found on Hunter’s Lap-top.
    Yes, Hunter Biden had 25,000 pictures of him torturing, abusing, and raping little Chinese children under the age of 10 in China on his laptop.

    Yes, the left is Completely Unaware that a New York Post recovered computer hard drive that led to these stories that originated from Hunters Computer about Hunter Biden son’s business dealings. Facebook, Twitter, and Cable News have gone further to suggest new theories about what’s on the hard drive. The story was also Collaborated by Hunters Navy Ex- Partner Tony Bobulinski: came forward and said that Joe Biden’s a liar and provided the proof from his Three Phones that he gave to the FBI for evidence.
    A picture is worth a thousand words, and a email was sent in 2014 to Hunter Biden and Devon Archer, Hunter’s former business partner, from another associate, Eric Schwerin, asking the two men for help removing a photograph of Devon and then-Vice President Joe Biden from Burisma’s website
    One text post says, “Hunter Biden had 25,000 pictures of him torturing and raping children under age 10 in China on his laptop
    The email goes on to ask Hunter and Devon if either of the two men could ask Bursima to take down the photograph of the vice president or provide contact information for someone who could. The email says Demetra, identified in the email as the vice president’s counsel, was the person who called and asked for the photograph to be taken down.
    This and many other things found sure seems to be a lot of evidence, including Hunter’s signature on a receipt for the found laptop. And the signature was verified to be Hunters.
    But like I said, the mainstream media is covering for Groping Joe and refusing to report the story, arguing that other people besides Joe Biden wanted to see that Ukrainian prosecutor fired as he admitted on Video
    Bottom Line…. Is this who you want to become YOUR President?

    Liked by 1 person

    • Trump supporters are missing the greater point… this election is not about who is better than Trump. It’s ALL about removing Trump. All this Hunter nonsense, old-news Hillary’s emails, deep state cabals, dossiers, and/or any other October surprise deflections, will mean nothing. Trump was impeached, which pretty much says it all right there.

      Like

  3. FINALLY SOMEONE HAS SAID IT!!!!! It’s time to make a conscious decision on how we want to spend the rest of our lives. Are we going to live in fear or freedom?

    I have done my best to respect the diverse opinions regarding COVID-19 over these past few months, however the ER nurse that posted this brilliantly sums up my train of thought :
    Please just take politics out of it and read this with an open mind using common sense.📷

    “Anyone out there who can tell me what our end game is with the covid 19?

    What is the magic formula that is going to allow us to sound the all clear?

    Is it zero cases?

    The only way that will happen is if we just stop testing and stop reporting.

    Is it a vaccine?

    It took 25 years for a chicken pox vaccine to be developed.
    The smallpox inoculation was discovered in 1796 the last known natural case was in 1977.

    We have a flu vaccine that is only 40 to 60% effective and less than half of the US population choose to get one, and roughly 20,000 Americans will die of the flu or flu complications.

    Oh, you’ll mandate it, like other vaccines are mandated in order to attend school, travel to some foreign countries, etc.

    We already have a growing number of anti vaxxers refusing proven, tested, well known vaccines that have been administered for decades but aren’t necessarily safe!

    Do you really think people will flock to get a fast tracked, quickly tested vaccine, whose long term side effects and overall efficacy are anyone’s best guess?

    How long are we going to cancel and postpone and reconsider?
    You aren’t doing in person school until second quarter?

    What if October’s numbers are the same as August’s?

    You moved football to spring?

    What if next March is worse than this one was?

    When do we decide quality of life outweighs the risks?

    I understand Covid can be deadly or very dangerous for SOME people, but so are strawberries and so is shellfish.

    We take risks multiple times a day without a second thought.
    We know driving a car can be dangerous, we don’t leave it in the garage. Many speed and don’t wear seat belts.

    We know the dangers of smoking, drinking and eating fried foods, we do it anyway.

    Is hugging Grandma really more dangerous than rush hour on the freeway?

    Is going out with friends after work more risky than 4 day old gas station sushi?

    Or operating a chainsaw?

    When and how did we so quickly lose our free will and give up our liberty?

    Is there a waiver somewhere I can sign that says, “I understand the risks, but I choose a life with Hugs and Smiles, and the State Fair and go to Church and go hug my Mom in her retirement home?

    I understand that there is a minuscule possibility I could die, but I will most likely end up feeling like crap for a few days.

    I understand I could possibly pass it to someone else, if I’m not careful, but I can pass any virus onto someone else.

    I’m struggling to see where or how this ends.

    We either get busy living or we get busy dying.

    When God decides it’s your time, you don’t get any mulligans, so I guess I would rather spend my time enjoying it and living in the moment and not worrying about what ifs and maybes, and I bet I’m not the only one.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I might suggest that many Americans are not as concerned about the “I” and “Me” of all this as you are. Besides the deaths we, the nation, has to contend with the immense drag on our health system and the system’s ability to address the “normal” maladies of life rather than assets tied up with Covid patients. We, the nation, also have to contend with an economy that is suffering because of the reluctance of people in general not wanting to engage in “crowd activities”.. working from home, forcing businesses to close. You’re alluding to favoring herd immunity (let God sort them out) when there’s no record at all that herd immunity has been effective in making “things just go back to normal”, much less any time soon. Also… those deaths you think are acceptable losses to make your life better… many people don’t feel all that safe when for each hundred people 3-4 are destined to die, completely random, regardless of age, social status, or misguided political ideology. Much of your “discomfort” is because Trump has done nothing toward a national effort to contain this thing because he is a science denier and fires people who don’t agree with his biased view of life.

      Like

      • Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution enumerates the powers of the United States Congress:

        https://constitution.congress.gov/browse/article-1/section-8

        Noticeably absent from those 18 clauses is the power to implement public health policies at a national level. That right is retained by the individual states (see the 10th Amendment). Nonetheless, Mr. Trump issued a travel ban on China on January 31, 2020 — a move for which he was widely criticized by his political opponents at the time. In fact, some of them (most notably Joe Biden, Nancy Pelosi and Bill de Blasio) even went so far as to encourage their constituents to ignore the President’s “hysterical xenophobia and fearmongering” and to go out to movies and public venues.

        So long story short: the responsibility for your health ultimately lies with you, the individual — not politicians.

        Liked by 1 person

      • The “ban” wasn’t a ban.. it was a travel restriction. It allowed for 40,000 people from China to come to the U.S., ostensibly U.S. citizens and others.. with very marginal screening (and reported “promises” of self-quarantining) once they got stateside. The real issue was Trump delaying any travel restriction from Europe until March.. and in the meantime New York got clobbered with Covid.
        Fact checking sources abound about Biden’s alleged “attack” on Trump and Pelozi’s “dancing in the streets”.
        https://apnews.com/article/d227b34b168e576bf5068b92a03c003d
        Doesn’t change the fact that Trump knew the virus was bad before all that and refused to tell the public.

        As for Trump shifting responsibility all onto the individual states… that was nothing but.. “Hey, don’t blame me! I left it all up to them!” deflection… then proceeds to accuse Dem governors of various shortcomings.

        Uh.. matters not.. he’s gone Jan. 20. But he has lots of time for more destruction. Better hunker down.. it’s gonna get way worse.

        Like

      • Funny thing is that Mr. Trump addressed the issue in his State of the Union address (the one that Mrs. Pelosi tore up and called a “manifesto of mistruths”):

        “Protecting Americans’ health also means fighting infectious diseases. We are coordinating with the Chinese government and working closely together on the coronavirus outbreak in China. My administration will take all necessary steps to safeguard our citizens from this threat.”

        And New York got clobbered because Andrew Cuomo issued a directive forcing sick patients into nursing homes (the place where people are most vulnerable to getting infected and dying of respiratory diseases).

        https://apnews.com/article/5ebc0ad45b73a899efa81f098330204c

        I wonder if he’ll ever be held morally accountable for his role in committing senicide.

        Liked by 1 person

  4. This shows why Trump should never had been Impeached! This story shows that the Impeachment was a Sham, the FBI KNEW about this Hunter/Joe Biden Story was true, so the Impeachment should NEVER had happened, as Trump’s Phone Call story was CORRECT!

    Liked by 1 person

  5. No matter how I vote, no matter what I say, lives are never going to be the same. I have been confused by the hostility of family and friends. I look at people I have known all my life so hate-filled that they agree with opinions they would never express as their own. I think that I may well have entered the Twilight Zone. You can’t justify this insanity. We have become a nation that has lost its collective mind!

    Some people are held responsible for things that happened before they were born, and other people are not held responsible for what they are doing right now.

    Criminals are caught-and-released to hurt more people, but stopping them is bad because it’s a violation of THEIR rights.

    People who have never owned slaves should pay slavery reparations to people who have never been slaves.

    If a dude pretends to be a woman, you are required to pretend with him.

    It was cool for Joe Biden to “blackmail” the President of Ukraine, but it’s an impeachable offense if Donald Trump inquiries about it.

    People who have never been to college should pay the debts of college students who took out huge loans for their degrees.

    Immigrants with tuberculosis and polio are welcome, but you’d better be able to prove your dog is vaccinated.

    Irish doctors and German engineers who want to immigrate to the US must go through a rigorous vetting process, but any illiterate gang-bangers who jump the southern fence are welcome.

    $5 billion for border security is too expensive, but $1.5 trillion for “free” health care is not.

    If you cheat to get into college you go to prison, but if you cheat to get into the country you go to college for free.

    And, pointing out all this hypocrisy somehow makes us “racists”!

    Nothing makes sense anymore, no values, no morals, no civility, and people are dying of a Chinese virus, but it is racist to refer to it as Chinese even though it began in China.

    We are clearly living in an upside-down world where right is wrong and wrong is right, where moral is immoral and immoral is moral, where good is evil and evil is good, where killing murderers is wrong, but killing innocent babies is right.

    Wake up America, the great unsinkable ship Titanic America has hit an iceberg, is taking on water and sinking fast. The choice is yours to make. What will it be? Time is short, make your choice wisely! “

    Liked by 3 people

    • I’ve not been following this blog of late.. yet somehow I get the occasional post from IB. Anyway , great expression of the frustration of the times, Frank. I’ve not seen it expressed that way on any blog I visit these days. You and I are opposites as it relates to the current Great Divide, but we share a level of frustration that has permeated the nation right down to individual families… and the wonderment of what planet we are on. I’ve made a lot of those same exasperations myself.. and some I still do, largely in private and with close acquaintances, simply to vent that because I am old I want the “old” days back… which I accept as the normal human propensity do avoid changing the status quo. But I tend to accept all that as a basic reality of a changing time, and your list there represents either the unique craziness and hypocrisy that often follows any rich democracy, or there is a true context if one scratches below the “crazy” surface. I might suggest you separate that which is just social rhetoric or political blather. It might be loud and it might seem to be attributed to some emerging political doctrine connected to one party or the other… but a majority of this is not likely to be law of the land. History has proven that in my lifetime for sure. I’ve found, for real life situations, that simply listening minus the emotion, and forget trying to convince or convert to get agreement, but acknowledging the differences, tends to mellow the tenseness.
      Regardless, never give up your vote… no matter how many soothsayers and prognosticators say that it doesn’t really matter… because the more they say that, the more it does matter.

      Like

  6. The research papers were interesting and I agree with your view of them. One cannot “instruct” people what to think. Attempts to do so tend to offend people and they tend to push back by adopting the opposite view. Instruction isn’t persuasion. One might instruct someone in an objective skill such as how to repair a motor or bake a cake, but opinions aren’t the same as skills. People form opinions for many reasons. Feelings and emotion play a strong role and they are not subject to external command. Indeed, other studies indicate that people tend to be persuaded by those with whom they identify and feel comfortable. Commanding someone usually strikes people as arrogant and offensive rather than persuasive. One might compel someone to behave in a certain way, but that doesn’t determine how they will behave when the compelling force is no longer present. Indeed, as indicated in the studies you cited, it often provokes a backlash.

    I believe that William F. Buckley once said that the left prides itself on taking into account all points of view and then is surprised to discover that there actually are other points of view. In their evangelical zeal, the SJWs seem to believe that all they need do is issue commands and people will adopt their beliefs in lockstep. Recent videos show BLM rioters going into restaurants and demanding patrons raise their fists and shout “Black lives matter!” They don’t appear to ask themselves whether those methods actually accomplish the intended goal. A poll of the diners after the event would have been interesting, asking them whether being harassed and threatened had made them more or less sympathetic to the cause.

    One problem that I have with the studies is that they are based on subjective terms such as “prejudice” and “racism.” Those mean different things to different people. For example, a decision to admit someone to a college or hire someone based on diversity goals prejudges the applicant based on race rather than individual qualifications? Advocates of diversity programs support that form of prejudice and claim their opponents are racist. So one is either prejudiced or racist making it impossible, in that case, to oppose both. Often, “racism” is portrayed in a self contradictory manner as something that only white people do. One hears the argument that one cannot be racist if one doesn’t have power. Taken to the logical conclusion that would mean that the Ku Klux Klan ceased to be racist when the nation elected a black president because that indicated the Klan had no real power. If a study is based on vague terms, the results will be as well.

    Liked by 1 person

  7. So, there’s a 900-pound gorilla in the room. Do we all sit silently waiting for this bad-tempered silverback to crush us, do we make a fast exit from the room, or do we break out an elephant gun and shoot the bastard?

    Political correctness gave us affirmative action, which grants advantages to the least gifted, least intelligent, least qualified individual over someone who does have all those attributes. Some of us said from the beginning that this is a terrible idea —not least because we live in a meritocracy, but because it opens the door to future unhappiness. I would not want to subject myself to neurosurgery if the surgeon’s admission to medical school was the result of the fact that he or she was a particular flavor of person, and as a consequence, graduated last in his or her class —you know, to fulfill a quota. Suitable for medical school. Would this matter to someone who needed brain surgery?

    It’s that serious. Forget the doctor … what about the judge who is no more qualified to sit on the bench than a community organizer, but because our political system is corrupt, ends up on the Supreme Court? Would that matter to our society?

    Very serious. Forget the doctor … what about the police officer hired to meet a racial quota, a person who we should no more arm with a gun than a manic depressive, who ends up unjustifiably shooting a perp in downtown Minneapolis? You know, because he or she has issues at home.

    Perhaps it would be much better for our society if we encouraged “speaking out” and to hell with political correctness. I implemented “to hell with political correctness” about 30 years ago.

    Liked by 1 person

  8. I’m not at all surprised by the results. We’ve long known that forcing change on people tends to, at best, fail and at worst, backfire completely.

    I believe it was Dale Carnegie that said “A man convinced against his will, is of the same opinion still.”

    It’s interesting to see how the term has been used, historically, in different contexts. Such as a way to keep oneself from being imprisoned or killed!

    ““The notion of political correctness came into use among Communists in the 1930s as a semi-humorous reminder that the Party’s interest is to be treated as a reality that ranks above reality itself,” writes Codevilla, Professor Emeritus of International Relations at Boston University.

    The semi-humorous reminder went something like this:

    “Comrade, your statement is factually incorrect.”
    “Yes, it is. But it is politically correct.”

    The anecdote was a vital reminder in Stalin’s empire: Stray from the party’s official position and it could mean death. Whether or not something was true mattered less than whether or not it advanced the Idea (i.e. the Party’s interest).”

    https://www.intellectualtakeout.org/blog/historical-origin-political-correctness/

    Liked by 2 people

  9. Having a bit of past academics on this psych stuff I did read the research paper they published. While I can appreciate their tantalizing approach it seems to me there are some lost considerations here. What they are measuring seems to be a cultural condition.. or conditioning… coupled with human propensities to hold bias and/or prejudice with the world around us. Given this research paper appeared to be a college level assignment I looked for the section that contained “limitations of the study”, of which I didn’t discern was there from the other headings. So here’s my observations.
    1. For obvious reasons the test group was Canadian college students.. like 100+ for both studies. This might suggest a cultural bias since the cultural perceptions being evaluated and tested were in fact Canadian perceptions… likely considerably different from U.S., or even English, German, Italian, etc.
    2. The average age for the test group was 18+ years old… and all college students. Again… cultural bias tends to shift or transition with age and life experience. There also was a fairly large disparity between male and female represented in the test group. Not overly sure how that would or could affect test results but for most research multi-gender test groups there’s usually a more balanced selection unless the research itself prefers otherwise. The same goes for age representation… and the fact they were all college students.

    Nonetheless, a nicely done research paper and is a great “tease” to further study. But to assigning it to a greater value.. a greater POLITICAL value… that you are trying to accomplish to simply cast further doubt onto Liberals by continuing to foster the Conservatives-are-human-and-Liberals-are-not lamentations… well.. again, if that’s what you were hoping to prove.. the researchers didn’t apparently collect data on the test subjects’ (Canadian) political affiliations, in spite of your willingness to provide your own interpretation and fill in any blanks.. and furthering to promote the Great Divide.

    But I am NOT in favor of political correctness, especially as a way to “blame” white people for everything since time began. My GF watches a lot of the Game Show network and admittedly iit is a bot of nostalgia at times watching the old game show hosts and guests and it’s amazing how many times I catch something. “Whoa, did Gene Rayburn just tell that lady she was beautiful and spend a little too much time saying it?” The world’s a mess.

    Liked by 1 person

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